E-mail Accessibility, a comprehensive list of connectivity by country,
maintained by Olivier Crepin-Leblond. He has recently created the Internetology,
a series of maps charting the worldwide spread of the Internet since
- Network Startup Resource Center.
International Internet Connectivity Map and the data
listed by country (version 15, as of 15/6/96). Produced by Larry
Landweber, Computer Science Department, University of Wisconsin - Madison,
USA. Previous versions from 1991 onwards are available at ftp://ftp.cs.wisc.edu/connectivity_table/
- Goodman S.E. et al, 1994, "The
Global Diffusion of the Internet : Patterns and Problems", Communications
of the ACM, August 1994, Vol. 37, No. 8, pages 27-31.
- Press L. & Rodriguez L., 1996,
"Towards an Internet Census for Developing Nations", Proceedings
of INET'96 Conference, 24-28th June 1996, Montreal, Canada.
- The World Link
: Network Society Index, a composite index and map of the "wired
'ness" of different counties, based on a range of computing, telecoms
and networking indicators, such as PCs and Internet hosts per thousand
- Connectivity Data for Africa's
Info Infrastructure, comprehensive and up to date information maintained
by Mike Jensen. It includes a nice clickable map of the countries in
- The Africa Internet
- Status Report, by Mike Jensen, May 2001.
- Freedom to Connect,
WIRED (August 1997, pages 106-107), by Leila Conners. A global map showing
the level of freedom to connect to the Internet at a national level.
- Internet Connectivity
in Africa, a report by Mike Jensen, January 1998. Also available,
tables of African Internet
Density and Internet
Users by country.
- The Mosaic Group are undertaking the Global
Diffusion of the Internet Project to measure and analyze the growth
of the Internet throughout the world. Since the project started in 1997
over thirty countries have been analysed.
- The "Digital
Divide" in the USA. Reports on the penetration of information infrastructure
(telephones, computers and modems) in the USA by the National Telecommunications
& Information Administration (NTIA).
- Hargittai E., 1998, "Holes
in the Net: The Internet and International Stratification", INET'98:
The Internet Summit, 21-24th July 1998, Geneva, Switzerland.
Wired World Atlas, by Leila Conners Petersen, Wired, Vol.
6.11, November 1998. The article "Envision the globe according to the
density of traditional media - TVs and telephones - and you get a brand-new
map." (Unfortunately, the actual cartogram map is not online.)
- Holderness M., 1997, "The
Internet: enabling whom, when and where?", paper presented at a
United Nations University INTECH seminar in Maastricht.
Counts: Measuring the Impacts of the Internet, by Office of International
Affairs, National Research Council, Washington DC, 1998.
- Daly J.A., 1999, "Measuring
Impacts of the Internet in the Developing World", IMP Magazine,
- Press L., Foster W.A., & Goodman S.E., 1999, "The
Internet in India and China", paper presented at the INET'99
Conference, 22-25th June, San Jose, California.
- Press L., Foster W.A., & Goodman S.E., 1999, "Surveying
the Global Diffusion of the Internet", paper presented at the INET'99
Conference, 22-25th June, San Jose, California.
- Uimonen P., 1999, "Connecting
Laos: Notes from the Peripheries of Cyberspace", paper presented
at the INET'99 Conference, 22-25th June, San Jose, California.
- Petrazzini B. & Kibati M., 1999, "The
Internet in Developing Countries", Communications of the ACM,
June 1999, Vol. 42, No. 6, pages 31-36.
- The Human Development
Report, 1999, by the UN Development Programme, has useful information
and statistics on the global diffusion of the Internet. Chapter two
of the report, New technologies
and the global race for knowledge is particularly relevant.
- Hargittai E., 1999, "Weaving
the Western Web: Explaining Differences in Internet Connectivity Among
OECD Countries", Telecommunications Policy, Vol. 23, No.
10/11, November/December 1999.
- The December 1999 issue of Information Impacts (iMP) Magazine
has a series of articles examining issues of "Access:
Where, Who, How, Why?".
- Africa.com: Continental Shift, Wired Magazine, July 2000, page
- Press, L., 2000, "The
State of the Internet: Growth and Gaps", paper presented at
the INET 2000 Conference, 18-21th July 2000, Yokohama, Japan.
- Ein-Dor P., Goodman S.E., & Wolcott P., 2000, "From
Via Maris to Electronic Highway: The Internet In Canaan",
Communications of the ACM, July 2000, Vol. 43, No. 7, pages 19-23.
- Minges M., 2001, "Internet
Around the World", poster presented at the INET 2001 Conference,
5-8th June 2001, Stockholm, Sweden.
- Martin F., 2001, "Status
of the Internet in Pacific Island Countries", paper presented
at the INET 2001 Conference, 5-8th June 2001, Stockholm, Sweden.
- Paltridge S., 2000, "Local
Access Pricing and the International Digital Divide", OnTheInternet,
- Pelletiere D. & Rodrigo G.C., 2001, "An
Empirical Investigation of the Digital Divide in the United States",
paper presented at the Fifth International Conference on Technology,
Policy and Innovation, 26-29th June 2001, Netherlands. (Word doc
Or go to
An Atlas of Cyberspaces